public class BigDecimal extends Number implements Serializable, Comparable<BigDecimal>
BigDecimal
class implements immutable arbitraryprecision decimal numbers. The methods of the
BigDecimal
class provide operations for fixed and floating point arithmetic, comparison, format
conversions, and hashing.
As the numbers are decimal, there is an exact correspondence between an instance of a BigDecimal
object
and its String
representation; the BigDecimal
class provides direct conversions to and from
String
and character array (char[]
) objects, as well as conversions to and from the Java
primitive types (which may not be exact) and BigInteger
.
In the descriptions of constructors and methods in this documentation, the value of a BigDecimal
number
object is shown as the result of invoking the toString()
method on the object. The internal
representation of a decimal number is neither defined nor exposed, and is not permitted to affect the result of any
operation.
The floating point arithmetic provided by this class is defined by the ANSI X3.2741996 standard, and is also
documented at http://www2.hursley.ibm.com/decimal
[This URL will change.]
Operations on BigDecimal
numbers are controlled by a MathContext
object, which provides the
context (precision and other information) for the operation. Methods that can take a MathContext
parameter implement the standard arithmetic operators for BigDecimal
objects and are known as
operator methods. The default settings provided by the constant MathContext.DEFAULT
(digits=9,
form=SCIENTIFIC, lostDigits=false, roundingMode=ROUND_HALF_UP
) perform generalpurpose floating point
arithmetic to nine digits of precision. The MathContext
parameter must not be null
.
Each operator method also has a version provided which does not take a MathContext
parameter. For this
version of each method, the context settings used are digits=0,
form=PLAIN, lostDigits=false, roundingMode=ROUND_HALF_UP
; these settings perform fixed point arithmetic with
unlimited precision, as defined for the original BigDecimal class in Java 1.1 and Java 1.2.
For monadic operators, only the optional MathContext
parameter is present; the operation acts upon the
current object.
For dyadic operators, a BigDecimal
parameter is always present; it must not be null
. The
operation acts with the current object being the lefthand operand and the BigDecimal
parameter being
the righthand operand.
For example, adding two BigDecimal
objects referred to by the names award
and
extra
could be written as any of:
award.add(extra)
award.add(extra, MathContext.DEFAULT)
award.add(extra, acontext)
(where acontext
is a MathContext
object), which would return a BigDecimal
object whose value is the result of adding award
and extra
under the appropriate context
settings.
When a BigDecimal
operator method is used, a set of rules define what the result will be (and, by
implication, how the result would be represented as a character string). These rules are defined in the BigDecimal
arithmetic documentation (see the URL above), but in summary:
MathContext
parameter for an operation were MathContext.DEFAULT
then the result would be
rounded to 9 digits; the division of 2 by 3 would then result in 0.666666667. MathContext
object. This lets you calculate using as many digits as you need  thousands, if necessary. Fixed point (scaled)
arithmetic is indicated by using a digits
setting of 0 (or omitting the MathContext
parameter). form
setting is not PLAIN
), a zero result is
always expressed as the single digit '0'
(that is, with no sign, decimal point, or exponent part).
new BigDecimal("2.40").add( new BigDecimal("2")) => "4.40"
new BigDecimal("2.40").subtract(new BigDecimal("2")) => "0.40"
new BigDecimal("2.40").multiply(new BigDecimal("2")) => "4.80"
new BigDecimal("2.40").divide( new BigDecimal("2"), def) => "1.2"
where the value on the right of the =>
would be the result of the operation, expressed as a
String
, and def
(in this and following examples) refers to MathContext.DEFAULT
). This preservation of trailing zeros is desirable for most calculations (including financial calculations). If
necessary, trailing zeros may be easily removed using division by 1.
digits
(the default is 9 digits). If the number of places needed before the decimal point exceeds the
digits
setting, or the absolute value of the number is less than 0.000001
, then the number
will be expressed in exponential notation; thus
new BigDecimal("1e+6").multiply(new BigDecimal("1e+6"), def)
results in 1E+12
instead of 1000000000000
, and
new BigDecimal("1").divide(new BigDecimal("3E+10"), def)
results in 3.33333333E11
instead of 0.0000000000333333333
.
The form of the exponential notation (scientific or engineering) is determined by the form
setting.
The names of methods in this class follow the conventions established by java.lang.Number
,
java.math.BigInteger
, and java.math.BigDecimal
in Java 1.1 and Java 1.2.
MathContext
,
Serialized FormModifier and Type  Field and Description 

static BigDecimal 
ONE
The
BigDecimal constant "1". 
static int 
ROUND_CEILING
Rounding mode to round to a more positive number.

static int 
ROUND_DOWN
Rounding mode to round towards zero.

static int 
ROUND_FLOOR
Rounding mode to round to a more negative number.

static int 
ROUND_HALF_DOWN
Rounding mode to round to nearest neighbor, where an equidistant value is rounded down.

static int 
ROUND_HALF_EVEN
Rounding mode to round to nearest neighbor, where an equidistant value is rounded to the nearest even neighbor.

static int 
ROUND_HALF_UP
Rounding mode to round to nearest neighbor, where an equidistant value is rounded up.

static int 
ROUND_UNNECESSARY
Rounding mode to assert that no rounding is necessary.

static int 
ROUND_UP
Rounding mode to round away from zero.

static BigDecimal 
TEN
The
BigDecimal constant "10". 
static BigDecimal 
ZERO
The
BigDecimal constant "0". 
Constructor and Description 

BigDecimal(BigDecimal bd)
Constructs a
BigDecimal object from a java.math.BigDecimal . 
BigDecimal(BigInteger bi)
Constructs a
BigDecimal object from a BigInteger , with scale 0. 
BigDecimal(BigInteger bi,
int scale)
Constructs a
BigDecimal object from a BigInteger and a scale. 
BigDecimal(char[] inchars)
Constructs a
BigDecimal object from an array of characters. 
BigDecimal(char[] inchars,
int offset,
int length)
Constructs a
BigDecimal object from an array of characters. 
BigDecimal(double num)
Constructs a
BigDecimal object directly from a double . 
BigDecimal(int num)
Constructs a
BigDecimal object directly from a int . 
BigDecimal(long num)
Constructs a
BigDecimal object directly from a long . 
BigDecimal(String string)
Constructs a
BigDecimal object from a String . 
Modifier and Type  Method and Description 

BigDecimal 
abs()
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is the absolute value of this BigDecimal . 
BigDecimal 
abs(MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is the absolute value of this BigDecimal . 
BigDecimal 
add(BigDecimal rhs)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is this+rhs , using fixed point arithmetic. 
BigDecimal 
add(BigDecimal rhs,
MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is this+rhs . 
byte 
byteValueExact()
Converts this
BigDecimal to a byte . 
int 
compareTo(BigDecimal rhs)
Compares this
BigDecimal to another, using unlimited precision. 
int 
compareTo(BigDecimal rhs,
MathContext set)
Compares this
BigDecimal to another. 
BigDecimal 
divide(BigDecimal rhs)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is this/rhs , using fixed point arithmetic. 
BigDecimal 
divide(BigDecimal rhs,
int round)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is this/rhs , using fixed point arithmetic and a
rounding mode. 
BigDecimal 
divide(BigDecimal rhs,
int scale,
int round)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is this/rhs , using fixed point arithmetic and a
given scale and rounding mode. 
BigDecimal 
divide(BigDecimal rhs,
MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is this/rhs . 
BigDecimal 
divideInteger(BigDecimal rhs)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is the integer part of this/rhs . 
BigDecimal 
divideInteger(BigDecimal rhs,
MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is the integer part of this/rhs . 
double 
doubleValue()
Converts this
BigDecimal to a double . 
boolean 
equals(Object obj)
Compares this
BigDecimal with rhs for equality. 
float 
floatValue()
Converts this
BigDecimal to a float . 
String 
format(int before,
int after)
Returns the
String representation of this BigDecimal , modified by layout parameters. 
String 
format(int before,
int after,
int explaces,
int exdigits,
int exformint,
int exround)
Returns the
String representation of this BigDecimal , modified by layout parameters and
allowing exponential notation. 
int 
hashCode()
Returns the hashcode for this
BigDecimal . 
int 
intValue()
Converts this
BigDecimal to an int . 
int 
intValueExact()
Converts this
BigDecimal to an int . 
long 
longValue()
Converts this
BigDecimal to a long . 
long 
longValueExact()
Converts this
BigDecimal to a long . 
BigDecimal 
max(BigDecimal rhs)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is the maximum of this and rhs . 
BigDecimal 
max(BigDecimal rhs,
MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is the maximum of this and rhs . 
BigDecimal 
min(BigDecimal rhs)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is the minimum of this and rhs . 
BigDecimal 
min(BigDecimal rhs,
MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is the minimum of this and rhs . 
BigDecimal 
movePointLeft(int n)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose decimal point has been moved to the left by a specified number of
positions. 
BigDecimal 
movePointRight(int n)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose decimal point has been moved to the right by a specified number of
positions. 
BigDecimal 
multiply(BigDecimal rhs)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is this*rhs , using fixed point arithmetic. 
BigDecimal 
multiply(BigDecimal rhs,
MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is this*rhs . 
BigDecimal 
negate()
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is this . 
BigDecimal 
negate(MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is this . 
BigDecimal 
plus()
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is +this . 
BigDecimal 
plus(MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is +this . 
BigDecimal 
pow(BigDecimal rhs)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is this**rhs , using fixed point arithmetic. 
BigDecimal 
pow(BigDecimal rhs,
MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is this**rhs . 
BigDecimal 
remainder(BigDecimal rhs)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is the remainder of this/rhs , using fixed point
arithmetic. 
BigDecimal 
remainder(BigDecimal rhs,
MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is the remainder of this/rhs . 
int 
scale()
Returns the scale of this
BigDecimal . 
BigDecimal 
setScale(int scale)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal with a given scale. 
BigDecimal 
setScale(int scale,
int round)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal with a given scale. 
short 
shortValueExact()
Converts this
BigDecimal to a short . 
int 
signum()
Returns the sign of this
BigDecimal , as an int . 
BigDecimal 
subtract(BigDecimal rhs)
Returns a plain
BigDecimal whose value is thisrhs , using fixed point arithmetic. 
BigDecimal 
subtract(BigDecimal rhs,
MathContext set)
Returns a
BigDecimal whose value is thisrhs . 
BigDecimal 
toBigDecimal()
Converts this
BigDecimal to a java.math.BigDecimal . 
BigInteger 
toBigInteger()
Converts this
BigDecimal to a java.math.BigInteger . 
BigInteger 
toBigIntegerExact()
Converts this
BigDecimal to a java.math.BigInteger . 
char[] 
toCharArray()
Returns the
BigDecimal as a character array. 
String 
toString()
Returns the
BigDecimal as a String . 
BigInteger 
unscaledValue()
Returns the number as a
BigInteger after removing the scale. 
static BigDecimal 
valueOf(double dub)
Translates a
double to a BigDecimal . 
static BigDecimal 
valueOf(long lint)
Translates a
long to a BigDecimal . 
static BigDecimal 
valueOf(long lint,
int scale)
Translates a
long to a BigDecimal with a given scale. 
byteValue, shortValue
public static final BigDecimal ZERO
BigDecimal
constant "0".public static final BigDecimal ONE
BigDecimal
constant "1".public static final BigDecimal TEN
BigDecimal
constant "10".public static final int ROUND_CEILING
MathContext.ROUND_CEILING
,
Constant Field Valuespublic static final int ROUND_DOWN
MathContext.ROUND_DOWN
,
Constant Field Valuespublic static final int ROUND_FLOOR
MathContext.ROUND_FLOOR
,
Constant Field Valuespublic static final int ROUND_HALF_DOWN
MathContext.ROUND_HALF_DOWN
,
Constant Field Valuespublic static final int ROUND_HALF_EVEN
MathContext.ROUND_HALF_EVEN
,
Constant Field Valuespublic static final int ROUND_HALF_UP
MathContext.ROUND_HALF_UP
,
Constant Field Valuespublic static final int ROUND_UNNECESSARY
MathContext.ROUND_UNNECESSARY
,
Constant Field Valuespublic static final int ROUND_UP
MathContext.ROUND_UP
,
Constant Field Valuespublic BigDecimal(BigDecimal bd)
BigDecimal
object from a java.math.BigDecimal
.
Constructs a BigDecimal
as though the parameter had been represented as a String
(using
its toString
method) and the BigDecimal(java.lang.String)
constructor had then been used.
The parameter must not be null
.
(Note: this constructor is provided only in the com.ibm.icu.math
version of the BigDecimal class.
It would not be present in a java.math
version.)
bd
 The BigDecimal
to be translated.public BigDecimal(BigInteger bi)
BigDecimal
object from a BigInteger
, with scale 0.
Constructs a BigDecimal
which is the exact decimal representation of the BigInteger
,
with a scale of zero. The value of the BigDecimal
is identical to the value of the BigInteger
. The parameter must not be null
.
The BigDecimal
will contain only decimal digits, prefixed with a leading minus sign (hyphen) if the
BigInteger
is negative. A leading zero will be present only if the BigInteger
is zero.
bi
 The BigInteger
to be converted.public BigDecimal(BigInteger bi, int scale)
BigDecimal
object from a BigInteger
and a scale.
Constructs a BigDecimal
which is the exact decimal representation of the BigInteger
,
scaled by the second parameter, which may not be negative. The value of the BigDecimal
is the
BigInteger
divided by ten to the power of the scale. The BigInteger
parameter must not be
null
.
The BigDecimal
will contain only decimal digits, (with an embedded decimal point followed by
scale
decimal digits if the scale is positive), prefixed with a leading minus sign (hyphen) if the
BigInteger
is negative. A leading zero will be present only if the BigInteger
is zero.
bi
 The BigInteger
to be converted.scale
 The int
specifying the scale.NumberFormatException
 If the scale is negative.public BigDecimal(char[] inchars)
BigDecimal
object from an array of characters.
Constructs a BigDecimal
as though a String
had been constructed from the character
array and the BigDecimal(java.lang.String)
constructor had then been used. The parameter must not be
null
.
Using this constructor is faster than using the BigDecimal(String)
constructor if the string is
already available in character array form.
inchars
 The char[]
array containing the number to be converted.NumberFormatException
 If the parameter is not a valid number.public BigDecimal(char[] inchars, int offset, int length)
BigDecimal
object from an array of characters.
Constructs a BigDecimal
as though a String
had been constructed from the character
array (or a subarray of that array) and the BigDecimal(java.lang.String)
constructor had then been used.
The first parameter must not be null
, and the subarray must be wholly contained within it.
Using this constructor is faster than using the BigDecimal(String)
constructor if the string is
already available within a character array.
inchars
 The char[]
array containing the number to be converted.offset
 The int
offset into the array of the start of the number to be converted.length
 The int
length of the number.NumberFormatException
 If the parameter is not a valid number for any reason.public BigDecimal(double num)
BigDecimal
object directly from a double
.
Constructs a BigDecimal
which is the exact decimal representation of the 64bit signed binary
floating point parameter.
Note that this constructor it an exact conversion; it does not give the same result as converting num
to a String
using the Double.toString()
method and then using the
BigDecimal(java.lang.String)
constructor. To get that result, use the static valueOf(double)
method to construct a BigDecimal
from a double
.
num
 The double
to be converted.NumberFormatException
 If the parameter is infinite or not a number.public BigDecimal(int num)
BigDecimal
object directly from a int
.
Constructs a BigDecimal
which is the exact decimal representation of the 32bit signed binary
integer parameter. The BigDecimal
will contain only decimal digits, prefixed with a leading minus
sign (hyphen) if the parameter is negative. A leading zero will be present only if the parameter is zero.
num
 The int
to be converted.public BigDecimal(long num)
BigDecimal
object directly from a long
.
Constructs a BigDecimal
which is the exact decimal representation of the 64bit signed binary
integer parameter. The BigDecimal
will contain only decimal digits, prefixed with a leading minus
sign (hyphen) if the parameter is negative. A leading zero will be present only if the parameter is zero.
num
 The long
to be converted.public BigDecimal(String string)
BigDecimal
object from a String
.
Constructs a BigDecimal
from the parameter, which must not be null
and must represent a
valid number, as described formally in the documentation referred to above
.
In summary, numbers in String
form must have at least one digit, may have a leading sign, may have a
decimal point, and exponential notation may be used. They follow conventional syntax, and may not contain blanks.
Some valid strings from which a BigDecimal
might be constructed are:
"0"  Zero "12"  A whole number "76"  A signed whole number "12.70"  Some decimal places "+0.003"  Plus sign is allowed "17."  The same as 17 ".5"  The same as 0.5 "4E+9"  Exponential notation "0.73e7"  Exponential notation
(Exponential notation means that the number includes an optional sign and a power of ten following an
'E
' that indicates how the decimal point will be shifted. Thus the "4E+9"
above is
just a short way of writing 4000000000
, and the "0.73e7"
is short for
0.000000073
.)
The BigDecimal
constructed from the String is in a standard form, with no blanks, as though the
add(BigDecimal)
method had been used to add zero to the number with unlimited precision. If the string
uses exponential notation (that is, includes an e
or an E
), then the BigDecimal
number will be expressed in scientific notation (where the power of ten is adjusted so there is a single
nonzero digit to the left of the decimal point); in this case if the number is zero then it will be expressed as
the single digit 0, and if nonzero it will have an exponent unless that exponent would be 0. The exponent must
fit in nine digits both before and after it is expressed in scientific notation.
Any digits in the parameter must be decimal; that is, Character.digit(c, 10)
(where c
is the character in question) would not return 1.
string
 The String
to be converted.NumberFormatException
 If the parameter is not a valid number.public BigDecimal abs()
BigDecimal
whose value is the absolute value of this BigDecimal
.
The same as abs(MathContext)
, where the context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
The length of the decimal part (the scale) of the result will be this.scale()
BigDecimal
whose value is the absolute value of this BigDecimal
.public BigDecimal abs(MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is the absolute value of this BigDecimal
.
If the current object is zero or positive, then the same result as invoking the plus(MathContext)
method
with the same parameter is returned. Otherwise, the same result as invoking the negate(MathContext)
method with the same parameter is returned.
set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is the absolute value of this BigDecimal
.public BigDecimal add(BigDecimal rhs)
BigDecimal
whose value is this+rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic.
The same as add(BigDecimal, MathContext)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
, and the
context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
The length of the decimal part (the scale) of the result will be the maximum of the scales of the two operands.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the addition.BigDecimal
whose value is this+rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic.public BigDecimal add(BigDecimal rhs, MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is this+rhs
.
Implements the addition (+
) operator (as defined in the decimal documentation, see
class header
), and returns the result as a BigDecimal
object.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the addition.set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is this+rhs
.public int compareTo(BigDecimal rhs)
BigDecimal
to another, using unlimited precision.
The same as compareTo(BigDecimal, MathContext)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
,
and the context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
compareTo
in interface Comparable<BigDecimal>
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the comparison.int
whose value is 1, 0, or 1 as this
is numerically less than, equal to,
or greater than rhs
.public int compareTo(BigDecimal rhs, MathContext set)
BigDecimal
to another.
Implements numeric comparison, (as defined in the decimal documentation, see class header
),
and returns a result of type int
.
The result will be:
1  if the current object is less than the first parameter 
0  if the current object is equal to the first parameter 
1  if the current object is greater than the first parameter. 
A compareTo(BigDecimal)
method is also provided.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the comparison.set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.int
whose value is 1, 0, or 1 as this
is numerically less than, equal to,
or greater than rhs
.public BigDecimal divide(BigDecimal rhs)
BigDecimal
whose value is this/rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic.
The same as divide(BigDecimal, int)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
, and the
rounding mode is MathContext.ROUND_HALF_UP
.
The length of the decimal part (the scale) of the result will be the same as the scale of the current object, if
the latter were formatted without exponential notation.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the division.BigDecimal
whose value is this/rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic.ArithmeticException
 If rhs
is zero.public BigDecimal divide(BigDecimal rhs, int round)
BigDecimal
whose value is this/rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic and a
rounding mode.
The same as divide(BigDecimal, int, int)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
, and the
second parameter is this.scale()
, and the third is round
.
The length of the decimal part (the scale) of the result will therefore be the same as the scale of the current object, if the latter were formatted without exponential notation.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the division.round
 The int
rounding mode to be used for the division (see the MathContext
class).BigDecimal
whose value is this/rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic and
the specified rounding mode.IllegalArgumentException
 if round
is not a valid rounding mode.ArithmeticException
 if rhs
is zero.ArithmeticException
 if round
is MathContext.ROUND_UNNECESSARY
and this.scale()
is insufficient to represent the result exactly.public BigDecimal divide(BigDecimal rhs, int scale, int round)
BigDecimal
whose value is this/rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic and a
given scale and rounding mode.
The same as divide(BigDecimal, MathContext)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
,
new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN, false, round)
, except that the length of the decimal part (the
scale) to be used for the result is explicit rather than being taken from this
.
The length of the decimal part (the scale) of the result will be the same as the scale of the current object, if the latter were formatted without exponential notation.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the division.scale
 The int
scale to be used for the result.round
 The int
rounding mode to be used for the division (see the MathContext
class).BigDecimal
whose value is this/rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic and
the specified rounding mode.IllegalArgumentException
 if round
is not a valid rounding mode.ArithmeticException
 if rhs
is zero.ArithmeticException
 if scale
is negative.ArithmeticException
 if round
is MathContext.ROUND_UNNECESSARY
and scale
is insufficient
to represent the result exactly.public BigDecimal divide(BigDecimal rhs, MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is this/rhs
.
Implements the division (/
) operator (as defined in the decimal documentation, see
class header
), and returns the result as a BigDecimal
object.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the division.set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is this/rhs
.ArithmeticException
 if rhs
is zero.public BigDecimal divideInteger(BigDecimal rhs)
BigDecimal
whose value is the integer part of this/rhs
.
The same as divideInteger(BigDecimal, MathContext)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
, and the context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the integer division.BigDecimal
whose value is the integer part of this/rhs
.ArithmeticException
 if rhs
is zero.public BigDecimal divideInteger(BigDecimal rhs, MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is the integer part of this/rhs
.
Implements the integer division operator (as defined in the decimal documentation, see class
header
), and returns the result as a BigDecimal
object.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the integer division.set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is the integer part of this/rhs
.ArithmeticException
 if rhs
is zero.ArithmeticException
 if the result will not fit in the number of digits specified for the context.public BigDecimal max(BigDecimal rhs)
BigDecimal
whose value is the maximum of this
and rhs
.
The same as max(BigDecimal, MathContext)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
, and the
context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the comparison.BigDecimal
whose value is the maximum of this
and rhs
.public BigDecimal max(BigDecimal rhs, MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is the maximum of this
and rhs
.
Returns the larger of the current object and the first parameter.
If calling the compareTo(BigDecimal, MathContext)
method with the same parameters would return 1
or 0
, then the result of calling the plus(MathContext)
method on the current object
(using the same MathContext
parameter) is returned. Otherwise, the result of calling the
plus(MathContext)
method on the first parameter object (using the same MathContext
parameter) is returned.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the comparison.set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is the maximum of this
and rhs
.public BigDecimal min(BigDecimal rhs)
BigDecimal
whose value is the minimum of this
and rhs
.
The same as min(BigDecimal, MathContext)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
, and the
context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the comparison.BigDecimal
whose value is the minimum of this
and rhs
.public BigDecimal min(BigDecimal rhs, MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is the minimum of this
and rhs
.
Returns the smaller of the current object and the first parameter.
If calling the compareTo(BigDecimal, MathContext)
method with the same parameters would return 1
or 0
, then the result of calling the plus(MathContext)
method on the current object
(using the same MathContext
parameter) is returned. Otherwise, the result of calling the
plus(MathContext)
method on the first parameter object (using the same MathContext
parameter) is returned.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the comparison.set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is the minimum of this
and rhs
.public BigDecimal multiply(BigDecimal rhs)
BigDecimal
whose value is this*rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic.
The same as add(BigDecimal, MathContext)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
, and the
context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
The length of the decimal part (the scale) of the result will be the sum of the scales of the operands, if they were formatted without exponential notation.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the multiplication.BigDecimal
whose value is this*rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic.public BigDecimal multiply(BigDecimal rhs, MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is this*rhs
.
Implements the multiplication (*
) operator (as defined in the decimal documentation, see
class header
), and returns the result as a BigDecimal
object.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the multiplication.set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is this*rhs
.public BigDecimal negate()
BigDecimal
whose value is this
.
The same as negate(MathContext)
, where the context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
The length of the decimal part (the scale) of the result will be be this.scale()
BigDecimal
whose value is this
.public BigDecimal negate(MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is this
.
Implements the negation (Prefix 
) operator (as defined in the decimal documentation, see
class header
), and returns the result as a BigDecimal
object.
set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is this
.public BigDecimal plus()
BigDecimal
whose value is +this
. Note that this
is not
necessarily a plain BigDecimal
, but the result will always be.
The same as plus(MathContext)
, where the context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
The length of the decimal part (the scale) of the result will be be this.scale()
BigDecimal
whose value is +this
.public BigDecimal plus(MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is +this
.
Implements the plus (Prefix +
) operator (as defined in the decimal documentation, see
class header
), and returns the result as a BigDecimal
object.
This method is useful for rounding or otherwise applying a context to a decimal value.
set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is +this
.public BigDecimal pow(BigDecimal rhs)
BigDecimal
whose value is this**rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic.
The same as pow(BigDecimal, MathContext)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
, and the
context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
The parameter is the power to which the this
will be raised; it must be in the range 0 through
999999999, and must have a decimal part of zero. Note that these restrictions may be removed in the future, so
they should not be used as a test for a whole number.
In addition, the power must not be negative, as no MathContext
is used and so the result would then
always be 0.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the operation (the power).BigDecimal
whose value is this**rhs
, using fixed point arithmetic.ArithmeticException
 if rhs
is out of range or is not a whole number.public BigDecimal pow(BigDecimal rhs, MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is this**rhs
.
Implements the power (^
) operator (as defined in the decimal documentation, see
class header
), and returns the result as a BigDecimal
object.
The first parameter is the power to which the this
will be raised; it must be in the range
999999999 through 999999999, and must have a decimal part of zero. Note that these restrictions may be removed
in the future, so they should not be used as a test for a whole number.
If the digits
setting of the MathContext
parameter is 0, the power must be zero or
positive.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the operation (the power).set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is this**rhs
.ArithmeticException
 if rhs
is out of range or is not a whole number.public BigDecimal remainder(BigDecimal rhs)
BigDecimal
whose value is the remainder of this/rhs
, using fixed point
arithmetic.
The same as remainder(BigDecimal, MathContext)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
,
and the context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
This is not the modulo operator  the result may be negative.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the remainder operation.BigDecimal
whose value is the remainder of this/rhs
, using fixed point
arithmetic.ArithmeticException
 if rhs
is zero.public BigDecimal remainder(BigDecimal rhs, MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is the remainder of this/rhs
.
Implements the remainder operator (as defined in the decimal documentation, see class header
),
and returns the result as a BigDecimal
object.
This is not the modulo operator  the result may be negative.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the remainder operation.set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is the remainder of this+rhs
.ArithmeticException
 if rhs
is zero.ArithmeticException
 if the integer part of the result will not fit in the number of digits specified for the context.public BigDecimal subtract(BigDecimal rhs)
BigDecimal
whose value is thisrhs
, using fixed point arithmetic.
The same as subtract(BigDecimal, MathContext)
, where the BigDecimal
is rhs
,
and the context is new MathContext(0, MathContext.PLAIN)
.
The length of the decimal part (the scale) of the result will be the maximum of the scales of the two operands.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the subtraction.BigDecimal
whose value is thisrhs
, using fixed point arithmetic.public BigDecimal subtract(BigDecimal rhs, MathContext set)
BigDecimal
whose value is thisrhs
.
Implements the subtraction (
) operator (as defined in the decimal documentation, see
class header
), and returns the result as a BigDecimal
object.
rhs
 The BigDecimal
for the right hand side of the subtraction.set
 The MathContext
arithmetic settings.BigDecimal
whose value is thisrhs
.public byte byteValueExact()
BigDecimal
to a byte
. If the BigDecimal
has a nonzero
decimal part or is out of the possible range for a byte
(8bit signed integer) result then an
ArithmeticException
is thrown.byte
equal in value to this
.ArithmeticException
 if this
has a nonzero decimal part, or will not fit in a byte
.public double doubleValue()
BigDecimal
to a double
. If the BigDecimal
is out of the
possible range for a double
(64bit signed floating point) result then an ArithmeticException
is thrown.
The double produced is identical to result of expressing the BigDecimal
as a String
and
then converting it using the Double(String)
constructor; this can result in values of
Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY
or Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY
.
doubleValue
in class Number
double
corresponding to this
.public boolean equals(Object obj)
BigDecimal
with rhs
for equality.
If the parameter is null
, or is not an instance of the BigDecimal type, or is not exactly equal to
the current BigDecimal
object, then false is returned. Otherwise, true is returned.
"Exactly equal", here, means that the String
representations of the BigDecimal
numbers
are identical (they have the same characters in the same sequence).
The compareTo(BigDecimal, MathContext)
method should be used for more general comparisons.
equals
in class Object
obj
 The Object
for the right hand side of the comparison.boolean
whose value true if and only if the operands have identical string
representations.ClassCastException
 if rhs
cannot be cast to a BigDecimal
object.compareTo(BigDecimal)
,
compareTo(BigDecimal, MathContext)
public float floatValue()
BigDecimal
to a float
. If the BigDecimal
is out of the
possible range for a float
(32bit signed floating point) result then an ArithmeticException
is thrown.
The float produced is identical to result of expressing the BigDecimal
as a String
and
then converting it using the Float(String)
constructor; this can result in values of
Float.NEGATIVE_INFINITY
or Float.POSITIVE_INFINITY
.
floatValue
in class Number
float
corresponding to this
.public String format(int before, int after)
String
representation of this BigDecimal
, modified by layout parameters.
This method is provided as a primitive for use by more sophisticated classes, such as DecimalFormat
, that can apply localesensitive editing of the result. The level of formatting that it provides is a
necessary part of the BigDecimal class as it is sensitive to and must follow the calculation and rounding rules
for BigDecimal arithmetic. However, if the function is provided elsewhere, it may be removed from this class.
The parameters, for both forms of the format
method are all of type int
. A value of 1
for any parameter indicates that the default action or value for that parameter should be used.
The parameters, before
and after
, specify the number of characters to be used for the
integer part and decimal part of the result respectively. Exponential notation is not used. If either parameter
is 1 (which indicates the default action), the number of characters used will be exactly as many as are needed
for that part.
before
must be a positive number; if it is larger than is needed to contain the integer part, that
part is padded on the left with blanks to the requested length. If before
is not large enough to
contain the integer part of the number (including the sign, for negative numbers) an exception is thrown.
after
must be a nonnegative number; if it is not the same size as the decimal part of the number,
the number will be rounded (or extended with zeros) to fit. Specifying 0 for after
will cause the
number to be rounded to an integer (that is, it will have no decimal part or decimal point). The rounding method
will be the default, MathContext.ROUND_HALF_UP
.
Other rounding methods, and the use of exponential notation, can be selected by using
format(int,int,int,int,int,int)
. Using the twoparameter form of the method has exactly the same effect
as using the sixparameter form with the final four parameters all being 1.
before
 The int
specifying the number of places before the decimal point. Use 1 for 'as many as are needed'.after
 The int
specifying the number of places after the decimal point. Use 1 for 'as many as are needed'.String
representing this BigDecimal
, laid out according to the specified parametersArithmeticException
 if the number cannot be laid out as requested.IllegalArgumentException
 if a parameter is out of range.toString()
,
toCharArray()
public String format(int before, int after, int explaces, int exdigits, int exformint, int exround)
String
representation of this BigDecimal
, modified by layout parameters and
allowing exponential notation.
This method is provided as a primitive for use by more sophisticated classes, such as DecimalFormat
, that can apply localesensitive editing of the result. The level of formatting that it provides is a
necessary part of the BigDecimal class as it is sensitive to and must follow the calculation and rounding rules
for BigDecimal arithmetic. However, if the function is provided elsewhere, it may be removed from this class.
The parameters are all of type int
. A value of 1 for any parameter indicates that the default
action or value for that parameter should be used.
The first two parameters (before
and after
) specify the number of characters to be used
for the integer part and decimal part of the result respectively, as defined for format(int,int)
. If
either of these is 1 (which indicates the default action), the number of characters used will be exactly as many
as are needed for that part.
The remaining parameters control the use of exponential notation and rounding. Three (explaces
,
exdigits
, and exform
) control the exponent part of the result. As before, the default
action for any of these parameters may be selected by using the value 1.
explaces
must be a positive number; it sets the number of places (digits after the sign of the
exponent) to be used for any exponent part, the default (when explaces
is 1) being to use as many
as are needed. If explaces
is not 1, space is always reserved for an exponent; if one is not needed
(for example, if the exponent will be 0) then explaces
+2 blanks are appended to the result.
(This preserves vertical alignment of similarly formatted numbers in a monospace font.) If explaces
is not 1 and is not large enough to contain the exponent, an exception is thrown.
exdigits
sets the trigger point for use of exponential notation. If, before any rounding, the number
of places needed before the decimal point exceeds exdigits
, or if the absolute value of the result
is less than 0.000001
, then exponential form will be used, provided that exdigits
was
specified. When exdigits
is 1, exponential notation will never be used. If 0 is specified for
exdigits
, exponential notation is always used unless the exponent would be 0.
exform
sets the form for exponential notation (if needed). It may be either
MathContext.SCIENTIFIC
or MathContext.ENGINEERING
. If the latter, engineering, form is requested,
up to three digits (plus sign, if negative) may be needed for the integer part of the result (before
). Otherwise, only one digit (plus sign, if negative) is needed.
Finally, the sixth argument, exround
, selects the rounding algorithm to be used, and must be one of
the values indicated by a public constant in the MathContext
class whose name starts with ROUND_
. The default (ROUND_HALF_UP
) may also be selected by using the value 1, as before.
The special value MathContext.ROUND_UNNECESSARY
may be used to detect whether nonzero digits are
discarded  if exround
has this value than if nonzero digits would be discarded (rounded) during
formatting then an ArithmeticException
is thrown.
before
 The int
specifying the number of places before the decimal point. Use 1 for 'as many as
are needed'.after
 The int
specifying the number of places after the decimal point. Use 1 for 'as many as
are needed'.explaces
 The int
specifying the number of places to be used for any exponent. Use 1 for 'as many
as are needed'.exdigits
 The int
specifying the trigger (digits before the decimal point) which if exceeded causes
exponential notation to be used. Use 0 to force exponential notation. Use 1 to force plain notation
(no exponential notation).exformint
 The int
specifying the form of exponential notation to be used (
MathContext.SCIENTIFIC
or MathContext.ENGINEERING
).exround
 The int
specifying the rounding mode to use. Use 1 for the default,
MathContext.ROUND_HALF_UP
.String
representing this BigDecimal
, laid out according to the specified
parametersArithmeticException
 if the number cannot be laid out as requested.IllegalArgumentException
 if a parameter is out of range.toString()
,
toCharArray()
public int hashCode()
BigDecimal
. This hashcode is suitable for use by the
java.util.Hashtable
class.
Note that two BigDecimal
objects are only guaranteed to produce the same hashcode if they are
exactly equal (that is, the String
representations of the BigDecimal
numbers are
identical  they have the same characters in the same sequence).
public int intValue()
BigDecimal
to an int
. If the BigDecimal
has a nonzero
decimal part it is discarded. If the BigDecimal
is out of the possible range for an int
(32bit signed integer) result then only the loworder 32 bits are used. (That is, the number may be
decapitated.) To avoid unexpected errors when these conditions occur, use the intValueExact()
method.public int intValueExact()
BigDecimal
to an int
. If the BigDecimal
has a nonzero
decimal part or is out of the possible range for an int
(32bit signed integer) result then an
ArithmeticException
is thrown.int
equal in value to this
.ArithmeticException
 if this
has a nonzero decimal part, or will not fit in an int
.public long longValue()
BigDecimal
to a long
. If the BigDecimal
has a nonzero
decimal part it is discarded. If the BigDecimal
is out of the possible range for a long
(64bit signed integer) result then only the loworder 64 bits are used. (That is, the number may be
decapitated.) To avoid unexpected errors when these conditions occur, use the longValueExact()
method.public long longValueExact()
BigDecimal
to a long
. If the BigDecimal
has a nonzero
decimal part or is out of the possible range for a long
(64bit signed integer) result then an
ArithmeticException
is thrown.long
equal in value to this
.ArithmeticException
 if this
has a nonzero decimal part, or will not fit in a long
.public BigDecimal movePointLeft(int n)
BigDecimal
whose decimal point has been moved to the left by a specified number of
positions. The parameter, n
, specifies the number of positions to move the decimal point. That is,
if n
is 0 or positive, the number returned is given by:
this.multiply(TEN.pow(new BigDecimal(n)))
n
may be negative, in which case the method returns the same result as movePointRight(n)
.
n
 The int
specifying the number of places to move the decimal point leftwards.BigDecimal
derived from this
, with the decimal point moved n
places to the left.public BigDecimal movePointRight(int n)
BigDecimal
whose decimal point has been moved to the right by a specified number of
positions. The parameter, n
, specifies the number of positions to move the decimal point. That is,
if n
is 0 or positive, the number returned is given by:
this.multiply(TEN.pow(new BigDecimal(n)))
n
may be negative, in which case the method returns the same result as movePointLeft(n)
.
n
 The int
specifying the number of places to move the decimal point rightwards.BigDecimal
derived from this
, with the decimal point moved n
places to the right.public int scale()
BigDecimal
. Returns a nonnegative int
which is the scale of
the number. The scale is the number of digits in the decimal part of the number if the number were formatted
without exponential notation.int
whose value is the scale of this BigDecimal
.public BigDecimal setScale(int scale)
BigDecimal
with a given scale.
If the given scale (which must be zero or positive) is the same as or greater than the length of the decimal part
(the scale) of this BigDecimal
then trailing zeros will be added to the decimal part as necessary.
If the given scale is less than the length of the decimal part (the scale) of this BigDecimal
then
trailing digits will be removed, and in this case an ArithmeticException
is thrown if any discarded
digits are nonzero.
The same as setScale(int, int)
, where the first parameter is the scale, and the second is
MathContext.ROUND_UNNECESSARY
.
scale
 The int
specifying the scale of the resulting BigDecimal
.BigDecimal
with the given scale.ArithmeticException
 if scale
is negative.ArithmeticException
 if reducing scale would discard nonzero digits.public BigDecimal setScale(int scale, int round)
BigDecimal
with a given scale.
If the given scale (which must be zero or positive) is the same as or greater than the length of the decimal part
(the scale) of this BigDecimal
then trailing zeros will be added to the decimal part as necessary.
If the given scale is less than the length of the decimal part (the scale) of this BigDecimal
then
trailing digits will be removed, and the rounding mode given by the second parameter is used to determine if the
remaining digits are affected by a carry. In this case, an IllegalArgumentException
is thrown if
round
is not a valid rounding mode.
If round
is MathContext.ROUND_UNNECESSARY
, an ArithmeticException
is
thrown if any discarded digits are nonzero.
scale
 The int
specifying the scale of the resulting BigDecimal
.round
 The int
rounding mode to be used for the division (see the MathContext
class).BigDecimal
with the given scale.IllegalArgumentException
 if round
is not a valid rounding mode.ArithmeticException
 if scale
is negative.ArithmeticException
 if round
is MathContext.ROUND_UNNECESSARY
, and reducing scale would discard
nonzero digits.public short shortValueExact()
BigDecimal
to a short
. If the BigDecimal
has a nonzero
decimal part or is out of the possible range for a short
(16bit signed integer) result then an
ArithmeticException
is thrown.short
equal in value to this
.ArithmeticException
 if this
has a nonzero decimal part, or will not fit in a short
.public int signum()
BigDecimal
, as an int
. This returns the signum function
value that represents the sign of this BigDecimal
. That is, 1 if the BigDecimal
is
negative, 0 if it is numerically equal to zero, or 1 if it is positive.int
which is 1 if the BigDecimal
is negative, 0 if it is numerically equal
to zero, or 1 if it is positive.public BigDecimal toBigDecimal()
BigDecimal
to a java.math.BigDecimal
.
This is an exact conversion; the result is the same as if the BigDecimal
were formatted as a plain
number without any rounding or exponent and then the java.math.BigDecimal(java.lang.String)
constructor were used to construct the result.
(Note: this method is provided only in the com.ibm.icu.math
version of the BigDecimal class. It
would not be present in a java.math
version.)
java.math.BigDecimal
equal in value to this BigDecimal
.public BigInteger toBigInteger()
BigDecimal
to a java.math.BigInteger
.
Any decimal part is truncated (discarded). If an exception is desired should the decimal part be nonzero, use
toBigIntegerExact()
.
java.math.BigInteger
equal in value to the integer part of this BigDecimal
.public BigInteger toBigIntegerExact()
BigDecimal
to a java.math.BigInteger
.
An exception is thrown if the decimal part (if any) is nonzero.
java.math.BigInteger
equal in value to the integer part of this BigDecimal
.ArithmeticException
 if this
has a nonzero decimal part.public char[] toCharArray()
BigDecimal
as a character array. The result of this method is the same as using the
sequence toString().toCharArray()
, but avoids creating the intermediate String
and
char[]
objects.char[]
array corresponding to this BigDecimal
.public String toString()
BigDecimal
as a String
. This returns a String
that exactly
represents this BigDecimal
, as defined in the decimal documentation (see class
header
).
By definition, using the BigDecimal(String)
constructor on the result String
will create a
BigDecimal
that is exactly equal to the original BigDecimal
.
toString
in class Object
String
exactly corresponding to this BigDecimal
.format(int, int)
,
format(int, int, int, int, int, int)
,
toCharArray()
public BigInteger unscaledValue()
BigInteger
after removing the scale. That is, the number is expressed as a
plain number, any decimal point is then removed (retaining the digits of any decimal part), and the result is
then converted to a BigInteger
.java.math.BigInteger
equal in value to this BigDecimal
multiplied by ten to
the power of this.scale()
.public static BigDecimal valueOf(double dub)
double
to a BigDecimal
.
Returns a BigDecimal
which is the decimal representation of the 64bit signed binary floating point
parameter. If the parameter is infinite, or is not a number (NaN), a NumberFormatException
is
thrown.
The number is constructed as though num
had been converted to a String
using the
Double.toString()
method and the BigDecimal(java.lang.String)
constructor had then been used.
This is typically not an exact conversion.
dub
 The double
to be translated.BigDecimal
equal in value to dub
.NumberFormatException
 if the parameter is infinite or not a number.public static BigDecimal valueOf(long lint)
long
to a BigDecimal
. That is, returns a plain BigDecimal
whose value is equal to the given long
.lint
 The long
to be translated.BigDecimal
equal in value to lint
.public static BigDecimal valueOf(long lint, int scale)
long
to a BigDecimal
with a given scale. That is, returns a plain
BigDecimal
whose unscaled value is equal to the given long
, adjusted by the second parameter,
scale
.
The result is given by:
(new BigDecimal(lint)).divide(TEN.pow(new BigDecimal(scale)))
A NumberFormatException
is thrown if scale
is negative.
lint
 The long
to be translated.scale
 The int
scale to be applied.BigDecimal
equal in value to lint
.NumberFormatException
 if the scale is negative.Copyright © 2016 Unicode, Inc. and others.